Education in Mexico facts– The care of people with special educational needs is not a recent concern in Mexico. The tradition of special education goes back to the government of Benito Juarez, who promulgated the decree that gave rise to the National School for Deaf-Mutes, in 1867, and the National School for the Blind, in 1870. In 1935 it was added to the Organic Law of Education a section referring to the protection of minors with mental deficiency. The following year.
In 1937 the Behavioral and Ortolalia Clinics were founded. And in 1943 the Normal School of Specialization was created. Which It emerged from the Pedagogical Medical Institute. In 1950 the Institute of Rehabilitation for blind children was created. All these pioneer institutions are the pillars on which the process of integration of people with disabilities to social development is based.
Do not forget that not all children with special educational needs have a disability. Such as those with learning problems. Or those with outstanding abilities and aptitudes. On the other hand, not all children with disabilities have special educational needs. So not all of them require special education services.
Finally, on December 18, 1970, the decree that ordered the creation of the Directorate General of Special Education.In the decade of the seventies. The first Integrated Groups in the Federal District and Monterrey began to function experimentally.
Changes in the special education approach
From 1980 to 1990 in the Integrated Groups there was a strong impulse to the area of ”learning problems”. That is, a necessary stage through which we all go through to build knowledge of the written language.
From then on he started the path for the re conceptualization of special education. The therapeutic or rehabilitative approach changed to an educational one. It became especially important that the child participate actively in his learning process, especially in regard to written language. And mathematical logic, and gave great impetus to pedagogical research.
Education in Mexico facts “Special” schools for special people
However, until 1993 special education had no place in regular school. But not to continue their secondary education, since it did not cover the knowledge that was taught in the regular primary. This was due to the fact that the special education curriculum was basically of a rehabilitative nature, not focused on academic activity. In addition, there were special education services for minors with learning and behavioral problems,
No more discrimination
From 1993 the educational policy had an important change: special education stopped being a different or particular education for “different” or “special” people. The General Directorate of Special Education developed the General Project for Special, modified the focus on said education and reoriented the plans.
And programs so that through the basic education system the special educational needs of the students could be met. So that children with special educational needs are integrated into the educational activity in the classroom. That is, no more discrimination against vulnerable groups.
The General Law of Education and the disabled
The General Education Law establishes equality in terms of access and permanence of children with disabilities. The National Educational System under the principle of educational integration. Article 41 of said Law determines the guidelines:
- Special education is intended for individuals with transitory or definitive disabilities. As well as those with outstanding aptitudes.
- It will try to assist the students in an appropriate way to their own conditions with social equity.
- In the case of minors with disabilities, their integration into the regular basic education schools will be encouraged. For those who do not achieve it, the satisfaction of the basic learning needs for autonomous social and productive coexistence will be sought.
- And staff of regular basic education schools that integrate students with special educational needs.
Multiple Care Centers
In order to make possible the educational integration of children with disabilities, special education schools disappeared. And instead the Multiple Care Centers (CAM) were created, which are the educational instance that offers early help. Basic education and job training for children and youth with disabilities.
Its objective is to assist children with a disability so that they benefit from the plan and the regular study programs. And reach their school grade as soon as possible, according to their age. The attention offered in these centers has a transitory nature.
For those students who cannot achieve the benefits of regular education there are CAM-Workshops. That is, programs seek the development of autonomy, self-care and learning of basic school concepts.
Service Units Supporting Regular Education
The goal of these Units is to support regular schools that provide services to children with disabilities. Who form a traveling team responsible for systematically attending to students, teachers, principals. And parents; that is, they support the entire educational community.
The main purpose of the educational integration pursued by USAER is to raise the quality of education and modernize teaching practices. Regular schools now have these support services for the integration of children who can benefit from education in regular schools. In fact, they serve as a link between regular schools and special education schools to channel students with disabilities.
When we somehow collaborate in the process of educational integration of children with disabilities we are helping to build a school open to diversity. A school where there is no room for discrimination against vulnerable groups, a school whose main focus is social equity.